Download A Grammar of Lamaholot, Eastern Indonesia by Kunio Nishiyama & Herman Kelen PDF

By Kunio Nishiyama & Herman Kelen

This ebook describes a grammar (mainly morphology and syntax) of the Lewoingu dialect of Lamaholot, an Austronesian language (Central-Malayo-Polynesian subgroup) spoken by means of 150,000 ~ 200,000 humans at the jap tip of Flores and the encircling zone in jap Indonesia. Lamaholot has 35 dialects, and even supposing there are a few descriptions and dictionaries for different dialects, the Lewoingu dialect hasn't ever been defined prior to. the outline during this e-book is largely theory-neutral, and analyses are stored to a minimal. This paintings might be of curiosity to descriptive linguists and Austronesian experts, particularly simply because languages of jap Indonesia regularly are poorly documented and family members of numerous dialects of Lamaholot are poorly understood. Typologists and theoretical linguists will be attracted to exact contract in Lamaholot, the place contract emerges not just on verbs and adjectives, but in addition on adverbs, numerals, a preposition, or even at the conjunction ('and'). Theoreticians may also be attracted to the bankruptcy on resumptive pronouns, that is a unprecedented description of the phenomena in Austronesian languages and indicates that Lamaholot essentially stocks basic homes of resumptive pronouns present in Irish and Semitic languages. additionally of curiosity are possessive buildings, the place the possessor may be both pronominal or postnominal, and every different has atypical constraints.

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In order to understand the situation it is necessary to remember that the Danes and the Anglo-Saxons were both Germanic peoples with the same Germanic traditions (see here the approving references to Danes in Beowulf) and that their languages, stemming from a common source not many centuries before, must have been to some extent mutually comprehensible, albeit with some difficulty. Furthermore, in national terms there was no relation of conqueror to vanquished, (although in one area Danes might be dominant rulers, in another Anglo-Saxons would be) and thus the groups met more or less as equals and certainly with much in common.

This rise took place especially during the reigns of Edgar (959-975), and then, after a short antimonastic interregnum, Ethelred the Unready (978-1016). When Edgar came to the throne he was only 16 years old, and Ethelred was some five years younger at the same stage. Even by Anglo-Saxon standards they were both young for the throne, and naturally enough had to rely on their advisers. Fortunately, both kings had (although in the case of Ethelred, only at first) excellent advisers. In 910 at Cluny in Burgundy a Benedictine house was established and with its strict asceticism revived the tarnished image of monasticism.

The standard reference works in English are Campbell 1959 for phonology and morphology and Mitchell 1985 for syntax. Luick 1914 is equally essential for phonology. Other texts of relevance are mentioned in the Further Reading sections of individual chapters. 1 Language change and historical linguistics Greek philosophers were aware of the fact that human language is subject to change in the course of time. But only from the nineteenth century onwards did scholars develop a truly scientific approach to language change and its description.

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