By Vít Bubeník
This monograph goals to shut the space in our wisdom of the character and velocity of grammatical switch through the formative interval of todays Indo-Aryan languages. throughout the 6th-12th c. the slow erosion of the bogus morphology of outdated Indo-Aryan resulted eventually within the remodelling of its syntax towards the recent Indo-Aryan analytic type.
This examine concentrates at the emergence and improvement of the ergative building by way of the passive-to-ergative reanalysis and the co-existence of the ergative building with the outdated and new analytic passive buildings. precise cognizance is paid to the actuation challenge noticeable because the tug of struggle among conservative and eliminative forces in the course of their improvement. different chapters take care of the evolution of grammatical and lexical element, causativization, modality, absolute buildings and subordination.
This examine is predicated on a wealth of recent information gleaned from unique poetic works in Apabhraṃśa (by Svayaṃbhādeva, Puṣpadanta, Haribhadra, Somaprabha et al.). It includes sections facing descriptive recommendations of Medieval Indian grammarians (esp. Hemacandra). all of the Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhraṃśa examples are regularly parsed and translated.
The opus is forged within the theoretical framework of practical Grammar of the Prague and Amsterdam faculties. it's going to be of specific curiosity to students and scholars of Indo-Aryan and common ancient linguistics, specifically these attracted to the problems of morphosyntactic swap and typology of their sociohistorical surroundings.
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Additional info for A Historical Syntax of Late Middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhraṃśa)
In the Western Deccan the Rashtrakutas were replaced by the (Later) Chalukyas. Until 1030 Mahmud's army invaded Northern India on almost annual basis. The remaining historical events of the 12th c. are fairly well known. The second large scale-attack by the Turks, Afghans and Persians took place under the leadership of Muhammad Ghuri at the end of the 12th c. His invading force entered the Indus plain through the more southerly Gomal pass, and a series of annual campaigns followed: in 1185 Muhammad conquered Lahore, annexed Multan and Sind, and in 1192 defeated the last Indo-Aryan king of Delhi, Prthviraja.
Elsewhere in Magadha there was less 'strict' Magadhi spoken. This dialect, called traditionally Ardha-Magadhī, did not merge OIA sibilants i and s, and liquids / and r. This variety was used by Jainas for the composition of the earliest sūtras of their Canon. It is generally assumed that stage Prakrits do not represent the actual speech of the people they are supposed to typify. Nevertheless, they are based upon it and remain for us pieces of valuable evidence regarding phonology, morphology and syntax of regional and social Middle Indo-Aryan dialects.
Its salient phonological feature was the preservation of r in consonant clusters (cf. Sindhi tre "three", vs. H tīn < Pkt tīni < OIA trīni). Kramadīsvara mentions two other features: the suffix -eppi (and eppinu) used in the gerund (tvā), and the pair of correlative pronouns jrum - drum "which/what" - "that" (Skt yat - tat). Nagara, according to Bhayani (1947:306), is to be understood as a cover term for all sorts of regional Apabhramśas which had developed in northern and western India "in opposition to Vracata".