Download Advances in Botanical Research, Vol. 18 by J.A. Callow (Ed.) PDF

By J.A. Callow (Ed.)

This quantity includes 4 experiences protecting topics of curiosity to a extensive +ange of botanists. Saxe examines the influence of polluted air on photosynthesis and stomatal functionality, and using physiological and biochemical responses for early detection of damage brought on by rigidity and pollution. Streeter presents and assessment of the shipping and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in legume nodules, and van Gardingen and beauty speak about the interplay of crops with wind, together with the impression of crops on air stream and the ensuing impacts on microclimate, and description the newest advances in study in to the physiological responses to wind. the development of fibre optic microprobes and their functions in measuring the sunshine microenvironment inside plant tissues are thought of via Vogelman and his colleagues.

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Kimmerer and Kozlowski (1981) found that resistant poplar clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance than pollution sensitive clones. The initial uptake was, therefore, higher in sensitive clones, and their stomata were found to close during 8 h of 200 ppb S 0 2 , while stomata in resistant clones did not (Table I). The stomata of the sensitive clones were only closed by SO2 to the level of the resistant clones. This showed that stornatal conductance was important in determining the relative susceptibility of poplar clones to pollution stress.

Bruggink et al. (1988) found a significant inhibition of stomatal diffusive resistance after 1 , 2 and 3 days of 1OOOppb NO exposure, but not after 4 and 5 days. The nonsignificant trends in both experiments, however, indicate an indirect effect on stomatal closure through effects by NO, on photosynthesis. Okano and Totsuka (1986) found no effects by 2 weeks of 1ppm NO2 on either stomatal or mesophyll resistance in sunflower. Saxe (1986a) found a 4 1 4 % significant decline in three of eight pot plants in response to 4 days of 1ppm NO exposure, and an 8% decline in response to a similar external dose of NO2 in only one of the pot plants.

The NO, concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings measured as daily or hourly averages reached 10-50 times the rural values, while N O often equalled the NO2 levels. Nitrogen is often considered to be the most important growth-limiting factor in forests, so the increased deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen has probably been beneficial in most situations. g. , 1983). However, direct physiological PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND STOMATAL RESPONSES 35 responses to NO, concentrations in the ambient air are disputable, except in combination with other pollutants, primarily SO2 (Section V), or at the high concentrations in commercial greenhouses.

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