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By J.W. Negele, Erich W. Vogt

This year's 4 articles deal with themes starting from the character of the substructure of the nucleon and the deuteron to the overall houses of the nucleus, together with its section transitions and its wealthy and unforeseen quantal homes. They evaluate the current experimental and theoretical figuring out of the beginning of the spin of the nucleon, the liquid-gas section transition that happens at a lot decrease temperatures and densities than these of a quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, the experimental info and theoretical types rising approximately very-high-spin states of nuclei, and the heritage of findings from the deuteron derived from fresh electron-deuteron scattering experiments with saw polarizations and different experiments. The authors should not pointed out.

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106]. In the latter paper it was argued that it was not necessary to consider excitations more complex that 2p–2h. In such a model space it was then shown that a correlated one-boson exchange effective interaction was able to reproduce measured GT strength distributions for 90Zr and 208Pb. In general, this spreading of GT strength results in a decrease in strength at low excitations, as will be discussed in the following section. In summary, both the excitation energy and the shape of the strength distribution of the GTGR can be readily accounted for on the basis of the model originally suggested by Ikeda et al.

The first of these was by Gaarde et al. [58], to fit the location and spreading of the “bump” observed in the 48Ca(3He, t)48Sc reaction at 66 MeV. , for the 90Zr(p,n)90Nb reaction at 120 MeV, Mathews et al. [107], showed that the observed distribution of GT strength was well accounted for by a shell model calculation with a model space of the (2p1g) shells. Another calculation by Muto et al. [108], assumed a closed core of 88Sr with single particle excitations into the (3s, 2d, 1g) shells. Using single particle energies and two-body matrix elements from fits to level schemes in that mass region, a satisfactory fit to the GT strength distribution was obtained.

Similar results have recently been reported at the lower energy of 260 MeV using the RIKEN accelerator and a magnetic spectrograph with detector system similar to that of SPES4 [72]. In a study of the 12C( 2He) reaction [73] an overall energy resolution of 460 keV was achieved. 5 MeV excitation. Measurements of the (d, 2He) reaction at 125 MeV have also been reported from a new facility at Texas A&M [74]. Results suggest that the reaction is useful for GT measurements even at this relatively low energy.

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