By Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)
Numerous animal species stay in environments characterised via a seasonal aid within the availability of water, which regularly yet now not regularly happens whilst temperatures are maximum. for lots of such animals, survival through the hardest season calls for spending lengthy classes of time in a slightly inactive country often called aestivation. yet aestivation is far greater than last inactive. winning aestivation calls for the choice of a formal microhabitat, variable levels of metabolic arrest and responsiveness to exterior stimuli, the facility to experience the correct time of 12 months for emergence, the maintenance of inactive tissue, and lots more and plenty extra. So, aestivation contains a posh choice of behaviors, ecological institutions and physiological alterations that change throughout species of their kind, significance and direction. This booklet seeks to discover the phenomenon of aestivation from diverse views and degrees of association, starting from microhabitat choice to genetic keep an eye on of physiological alterations. It brings jointly authors from the world over engaged on varied systematic teams, techniques, and questions, yet who're all finally operating to raised comprehend the complicated factor of aestivation.
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Additional resources for Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects
Freezing). In addition to physiological costs, there are also potential ecological drawbacks of torpor, including vulnerability to predation, competition for resources from individuals remaining active, reduced or delayed reproduction or development, and lower rates of essential activities such as cell division and digestion. , fat-tailed lemurs; Dausmann et al. 2004, 2005), and the use of torpor is restricted to relatively short-term periods. Acknowledgements We thank Carlos Navas and José Eduardo de Carvalho for their invitation to contribute to this book, Ariovaldo P.
2 Ion Motive ATPases Successful entry into hypometabolism requires strong suppression of the rates of all energy-expensive metabolic processes. Ion-motive ATPases are certainly among the most expensive; indeed, the Na+K+ATPase ion pump alone can consume up to 40% of total ATP turnover in some cell types (Clausen 1986). ) means that control over their activity during entry into and arousal from hypometabolic states needs to be closely regulated and coordinated. Studies with O. lactea showed that RPP is critical to managing the activities of ion pumps during aestivation.
RPP control over enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism has been clearly demonstrated for both vertebrate (toad) and invertebrate (land snails) aestivators (reviewed by Brooks and Storey 1997; Storey 2002). Initial studies showed phosphorylationmediated control of two regulatory enzymes of glycolysis during aestivation: PK and phosphofructokinase (PFK) (Whitwam and Storey 1990, 1991; Cowan and Storey 1999). B. M. Storey high and low phosphate forms of the enzymes were separated by isoelectric focusing and showed different kinetic properties (Cowan and Storey 1999).