By Grant E. Isaac
Genetically transformed (GM) agricultural plants that are authorized as secure in North the US (Canada and the USA) are dealing with major regulatory hurdles in having access to the eu Union. the advance and commercialization of GM vegetation illustrate a fancy problem dealing with exchange international relations - the problem of regulatory regionalism created via social regulatory obstacles.
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Extra info for Agricultural Biotechnology and Transatlantic Trade: Regulatory Barriers to GM Crops (Cabi Publishing)
The cells from the genetic modification are cultured into seeds, and contained growth trials are performed to assess the viability of the GM variety. This is followed by controlled field trials performed to assess whether or not the GM variety expresses the desired characteristics. Gene-mapping and gene-tracking techniques allow plant breeders to identify if the desired genetic modification is present in the target cells and seeds without having to grow out the seeds in field trials (Barton, 1998).
Social integration is proposed as a method for ensuring that the externalities created in a foreign jurisdiction but which have an impact on the domestic jurisdiction are dealt with, rather than left to the forces of international economic integration. This can include methods to enhance the coordination of divergent food-safety and environmental-protection regulations among jurisdictions. An important aspect of the social perspective is that it generally supports either a deeper regulatory integration between nation-states than that supported by the international economic-integration approach or no integration at all.
Despite the potential of output-trait applications and bioengineered GM products, there are current limits to what agricultural biotechnology can achieve. For instance, it has been argued that ‘no scientists will be able to take a tomato, add 20 genes from a cow and 30 genes from wheat, and come up with a crop that has the nutritional qualities of beef and bread’ (Brill, 1988). Further, the challenge facing crop developers is not how to prevent GM crops from getting out of control, but, rather, how to develop GM crops that are viable enough to grow within the agricultural system – the very same problem that faced traditional plant breeders.