By Leonard Susskind
During the last decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by way of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein's recognition that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound matters in regards to the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions wondered theoretical physicists and finally resulted in a revolution within the approach we predict approximately house, time, topic and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a impressive precept referred to as ''The Holographic Principle'', that's now an enormous concentration of consciousness in gravitational learn, quantum box concept and hassle-free particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String idea, develops and explains those suggestions
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Extra info for An Introduction to Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe
Let us consider a conventional massless free Klein–Gordon ﬁeld χ in the Schwarzschild background. 1 as a function of the Schwarzschild coordinate r. For r >> 3M G the potential is repulsive. In fact it is just the relativistic generalization of the usual repulsive centrifugal barrier. However as the horizon is approached, gravitational attraction wins and the potential becomes attractive, and pulls a wave packet toward the horizon. The maximum of the potential, where the direction of the force changes, depends weakly on the angular momentum .
5 Proper Temperature It is noteworthy that the temperature TR is dimensionless. Ordinarily, temperature has units of energy, or equivalently, inverse length. The origin of the dimensionless temperature lies in the dimensionless character of the Rindler time variable ω. Nevertheless we should be able to assign to each Fido a conventional temperature that would be recorded by a standard thermometer held at rest at the location of that Fido. We can consider a thermometer to be a localized object with a set of proper energy levels i .
Any particle that starts with vanishing radial velocity in the region r < 3M G will spiral into the horizon. In the region of large negative r∗ where we approach the horizon, the potential is unimportant, and the ﬁeld behaves like a free massless Klein– Gordon ﬁeld. 11) ±t) Let us consider a ﬁeld quantum of frequency ν and angular momentum propagating from large negative r∗ toward the barrier at r ≈ 3M G. Will it pass over the barrier? 9 has the form of a Schrodinger equation for a particle of energy ν 2 in a potential V .