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By James Jeans

This publication might be defined as a student's version of the author's Dynamical thought of Gases. it truly is written, besides the fact that, with the wishes of the scholar of physics and actual chemistry in brain, and people components of which the curiosity used to be usually mathematical were discarded. this doesn't suggest that the booklet comprises no critical mathematical dialogue; the dialogue particularly of the distribution legislations is sort of designated; yet by and large the maths is anxious with the dialogue of specific phenomena instead of with the dialogue of basics.

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Ramsay was of the opinion that geological ages are very long, even billions of years. Kelvin objected that the Sun, being a finite body, could not possibly shine for so long. Ramsay responded that this point of physics had nothing to do with him: I am as incapable of estimating and understanding the reasons which you physicists have for limiting geological times as you are incapable of understanding the geological reasons for our unlimited estimates. Kelvin responded by saying that physics can be explained to anyone who is really willing to listen and understand.

Darwin made the very rough estimate that the sea erodes into the 500 foot cliff at a rate of 1 inch per century, whence he found that it would take about 306 662 400 years to create the present day valley. While Darwin had good reasons for the estimated rate of erosion, it was not a measured number. Another heavy assumption in this calculation was the constancy of the process over such a long period. Put differently, an average constant rate over a long period was assumed. We know today that the surface of the Earth is relatively young compared to the age of the Earth.

In 1809 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744– 1829m) developed an analogous conjecture, with ‘needed’ traits being acquired, then passed on. These theories of transmutation were developed by radicals in Bri- 49 In biology, mutation is a sudden, random change in a gene, the structural unit of inheritance in living organisms. Changes within single genes, called point mutations, are actually chemical changes in the structure of the constituent DNA. 50 De Vries, H. Die Muthationstheorie, Veit & Co, Leipzig, 1901.

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