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By Julius A. Vida (Eds.)

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The benzodiazepines are extremely effective in elevating the threshold to electrical stimulation in the reticular activating system, which may be related to their potent sedative activity. They also effectively shorten the duration and reduce the spread of repetitive discharges in cortex and limbic system. It is worth noting that neurochemistry, neurophysiology, seizures, and anticonvulsant drugs all have one compound of common interest, y-aminobutyric acid. Its structure is quite similar to the highly potent anticonvulsant phenylacetylurea.

BARBITURATES 1. Phénobarbital Phénobarbital, the first modem anticonvulsant drug, was reported to be clinically effective as an anticonvulsant by Hauptman in 1912. To this day it remains one of the major anticonvulsant drugs. It has the widest spectrum of 2. C2H5 HsCe. C2H5 JO T O Mephobarbital H5C O C2H5 P HN^NH H H Primidone activity in different seizure patterns, and many anticonvulsant drugs are structural derivatives of this barbiturate. Usual doses are in the range of 2-3 mg/kg and rarely exceed 5 mg/kg.

They obtained the results shown in the following tabulation: Generalized seizures Temporal lobe seizures Absence seizures f complete control f partial control £ no effect 3 T T complete control j T partial control TV complete control for 1 month followed by return of seizures TV no effect ^T indeterminate f complete control | partial control | transitory control | no effect £ indeterminate 2. Neuropharmacology 41 They encountered vestibular dysfunction resembling hydantoin toxicity in one patient who accidently consumed 1600mg/day.

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