By William Minter
Of the entire many violent chapters in contemporary Southern African heritage, the conflicts in Angola and Mozambique given that independence in 1975 were the main protracted, complicated and lethal for thousands of civilians. William Minter argues that they characterize a brand new type of non-conventional battle attribute of the 'contra' interval - neither vintage guerrilla struggle nor trouble-free exterior aggression, yet comprising components of civil battle ruled by means of nearby and international exterior powers.He examines the Unita and Renamo social buildings, exterior interventions, styles of army recruitment, conditioning, logistics and method, and the blunders made through the Angolan and Mozambican states.
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Extra resources for Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique
Imperialism, on the other hand, is defined in the original OED in quite different terms, as either (1) "an imperial system of government; the rule of an emperor, esp. when despotic or arbitrary" -a definition that, unlike the one for colonialism, omits any necessity for a foreign • presence and focuses entirely on a "system of government," which, logically, cannot be "systematic" if it is at the same time also "arbitrary"; or (2) as "the principle or spirit of empire; advocacy of what are held to be imperial interests.
It was one of our damned English tricks he had never learnt to tackle'" (qtd. in Baines 234). One wonders in this connection just how perceptive Wells himself was in grasping the subtle dimensions of Conrad's sense of the comic, for there are unquestionably humorous elements in Heart of Darkness. Some of his thumbnail sketches of character are almost Dickensian. This is striking in the case of the old doctor in Brussels who takes Marlow's pulse, wants to measure his head "in the interests of science," and inquires if there is any history of madness in his family.
Heart of Darkness implies that a fair answer to such questions is possible only in a context where our supposedly distinctively "human" qualities are put to the severest possible test, preferably in conditions of great physical hardship and the most extreme isolation. For Conrad, here as virtually everywhere else in his fiction, it is axiomatic that the nature of human nature is discoverable only under duress. For him the study of the human psyche is and must always be psychopathology. To undertake such a study, the experimenter/explorer must therefore be prepared to subject herself or himself (or his or her fictional alter egos) to the most radical vivisection.