By Mark J. Wetzel (auth.), Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Hongzhe Wang, Adrian Pinder, Rebi Nijboer (eds.)
This quantity includes chosen papers from the ninth Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta, 6–10 October 2003, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 18 contributions care for the biology of aquatic oligochaetes, and represents a mix of the fields of taxonomy, anatomy, morphology and body structure, lifestyles background, ecology, sludge reports and toxicology. This vast scope is in response to the hot traits in oligochaete examine, with a unique curiosity in sludge studies.
Research groups from France, Japan, usa, Czech Republic, The Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Germany, Hungary and China current the most recent advancements on annelid stories and in addition replicate a balanced mix of geographical components, in addition to organic topics.
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Additional info for Aquatic Oligochaete Biology IX: Selected Papers from the 9th Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta, 6–10 October 2003, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Note the centrally directed neural process connected with the lateral polysegmental ﬁbre bundle. (e, f) GABA-IR neurons with various soma size and shape from the posterior part of the ganglion. bv: blood vessel; bw: body wall; mg: midgut; sn: 2nd segmental nerve; arrowheads: lateral polysegmental ﬁbre bundles; double arrowheads: medial polysegmental ﬁbre bundles; open arrowhead: contralateral axon of a giant motoneuron; arrows: incoming sensory ﬁbres in the 2nd segmental nerves, asterisks: lateral giant axon.
In earthworms, characterized by a more intensive locomotion than freshwater oligochaetes, the reﬂex centre in each segment, namely the ventral cord ganglion, needs more eﬀective neural activity. Their interneurons and motoneurons are aﬀected by a higher number of inhibitory neurons. The facts that GABAergic polysegmental interneuronal ﬁbre bundles (i) came from the suboesophageal ganglion, thought to be the highest motor centre of oligochaete CNS (Dorsett, 1978) and (ii) they run in close to the dorsal giant axons, possibly making numerous synaptic contacts with their collaterals in the neuropile, convey the suggestion that these polysegmental interneuronal tracts have an inhibitory inﬂuence on the activity of the dorsal giant axons.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates not only the presence of GABA as an inhibitory transmitter in certain neural structures of L. hoﬀmeisteri, but also it presented detailed three-dimensional organization of all labelled neurons and neural processes in the whole CNS and in some parts of PNS. Our results show that GABA acts as a common neurotransmitter in certain sensory and motor neurons and interneurons. Furthermore, the basic pattern of labelled structures is the same in the tubiﬁcid worm, L.