By Fuad H. Megally, M. Mansoor
Contents: instruction manual - Textbook - Written workouts ebook - Spoken routines e-book - Alphabet e-book - Translation ebook - research leaflet - "Getting all started" cassette - nine language cassettes.
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Extra resources for Arabic course Translation and Transliteration
Bergsland's point is that it is much easier to derive Aleut from something like Proto-Eskimo than it is to derive Eskimo from something closer to Aleut. 22. The controversy over the reality of 'Chukotko-Kamchatkan' Unlike the story of the acceptance of the Eskimo-Aleut languages as a single family, there is still not complete agreement amongst specialists in the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages as to the nature of the relationship between the two purported branches of the family, Chukotkan and Kamchatkan.
Knowledge of the specific Aurignacoid blade technology associated with the latter people ultimately derived, according to MullerBeck, from the Near East and diffused as far as Kamchatka, Hokkaido and Beringia across the tundra by whatever routes the ice allowed. He descries its presence - albeit in a special local form - at the Mal'ta site of Baykalia (Muller-Beck 1967, 391), C14 dated to 12,800 BC but suspected by some to be much older (see Fiedler 1992, 35). Any new-comers associated with its appearance would probably have been absorbed by residual population groups they encountered en route, a pattern that was later to be repeated several times along the same approximate route into the New World.
The cardinal point to bear in mind is that, owing to the quirks of geography and climate which left the dry Asian and Beringian tundra largely ice-free while northern Europe was still covered by the Scandinavian ice cap, human beings could move up into the Arctic within eastern Asia before this was possible in Europe. It seems plausible that bearers of a Ural-Altaic complex of languages (itself far from a homogenous 'stock') moved up from further south into Mongolia, Manchuria and Baykalia (southern central Siberia) with the late Pleistocene/ Holocene warming and the northward return of the forests, some time after the last ancestors of the 24 INTRODUCTION Paleo-Arctic people had moved on.