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The standard error: 6. Steps 1–4 as for the standard deviation, to obtain the variance. 7. Divide the variance by n. 8. Taking the square root gives the standard error. 1), usually represented as s or s. If your calculator has both s and s n - 1 buttons, it is the s n - 1 one that you want. The standard deviation will become important later, but for the moment we can simply use it to obtain the standard error. All we need to do is call up the standard deviation, square it, divide it by n and take the square root.

By far the simplest way is to find the confidence limits to the median using a standard table, part of which is shown in Appendix I. All we need to do is rank order our data values as before, count the number of values in the sample (n), then use n to read off a value r from the table. Normally, we would be interested in the r-value appropriate to confidence limits of approximately 95 per cent (‘approximately’ because, of course, the limits always have to be two of the values in the data set, one above the median and one below – if n is less than 6, 95 per cent confidence limits cannot be found).

Some of the bigger leaves smell strongly or have sticky or latexy sap when squeezed, but the last is also the case with what look like dandelion leaves. The stems of some of the medium-sized and bigger ones have thorns or sticky hairs. There’s also more colour variation in these two categories, some leaves being reddish rather than green. It looks like the tougher, more strongly smelling samples generally have less damage than the others. Example 2 Material: Stained blood smears, vials of preserved ectoparasites, gut n Â� ematodes and faecal samples from live-trapped bank voles (Myodes glareolus), microscope with eyepiece graticule, clean microscope slides and coverslips, pipettes.

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