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Additional resources for Aspect in Burmese: Meaning and function (Studies in Language Companion Series)
States and activities differ in that, although they are both temporally unbounded (atelic), the former are non-dynamic, while the latter are dynamic in nature. Achievements and accomplishments are both temporally bounded (telic) , although they differ in that achievements code instantaneous changes of state (defined as punctual) while accomplishments code changes of state that occur over some period of time (defined as non-punctual). The following are a few examples of these different classes in English (VVLP 1997: 92): (8) states: activities: achievements: accomplishments: be sick, be tall, love, know, have walk, swim, read, eat, rain pop, explode, collapse, shatter (all intransitive) melt, freeze, dry (all intransitive) STRUCTURE OF BURMESE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES 21 An important observation on the semantics of verbs is that it is necessary to distinguish between their lexical meaning, as it is shown in the lexicon of a language, and the meaning they have in a particular clause.
As we move away from the nucleus, the lexical origin of the operators that modify the core and the clause be- STRUCTURE OF BURMESE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES 35 comes more and more opaque as the function of operators becomes more abstract. For instance: (27) uGsefaw|f vrf; r = avs|uf = mdkif = aw|h = bl;? tn la m = au = nai = t = bu I road NEG1-walk-CAN-FINAL-NEG2 ‘I can’t walk anymore’ [Yin 1981: 22] The main verb avs|uf [au] ‘walk’ is marked for ability by the nuclear operator &mdkif [nai] ‘CAN’, whose lexical source is the main verb mdkif [nai] ‘win; conquer; prevail’.
If A ends with a glottal stop or a nasalised vowel, both these segments will undergo homorganic assimilation with B’s initial consonant. Voicing of the latter is barred if A ends with a glottal stop. In combinations of reduced and full syllables, ARED-B, the initial voiceless consonant of B normally undergoes voicing. For example: 2 Segmental sandhi, indicated by =, is shown only when it marks grammatical boundness. The grammatical markers involved in sandhi alternations are shown in their citation form, not in their modified phonetic realisation.