By Wolfgang Demtröder

Creation -- the idea that of the atom -- improvement of quantum physics -- uncomplicated thoughts of quantum mechanics -- The hydrogen atom -- Atoms with multiple electron -- Emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation via atoms -- Lasers -- Diatomic molecules -- Polyatomic molecules -- Experimental suggestions in atomic and molecular physics -- sleek advancements in atomic and molecular physics

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**Sample text**

15) is transported to the electrode in an electrolytic cell, when 1 mol of singly charged ions with mass m X and elementary charge e has been deposited at the electrode. 2. Experimental and Theoretical Proofs for the Existence of Atoms EXAMPLE Phase planes In the electrolytic process AgNO3 ↔ Ag+ + NO− 3 of silver nitrate the transport of charge F means a simultaneous deposition of the molar mass M = NA · m(Ag) at the negative electrode, which can be measured by weighing the cathode before and after the charge transport.

2. Experimental and Theoretical Proofs for the Existence of Atoms (besides the transmitted beams, not shown in Fig. 12) the diffracted beams 3 and 4 are generated, which overlap in the third slice S3 where they can again be transmitted or diffracted. The transmitted part of beam 4 now interferes with the diffracted part 5 of beam 3 and the detector D2 monitors the total intensity, which depends on the phase difference between the partial waves 4 and 5. Detector D1 measures the interference intensity of the superimposed transmitted beam 3 and the diffracted beam 6 of beam 4.

Collisions with each other can only happen when the distance between the ball centers becomes d = 2r0 . For larger distances the interaction between the balls is zero. The interaction energy between two hard spheres is therefore (Fig. 14): E pot (r ) = 0 for r ≥ 2r0 , E pot (r ) = ∞ for r < 2r0 . 24) At a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature T = 300 K, 1 cm3 of a gas contains about 3 × 1019 atoms or molecules. Their mean distance is d = 3 nm. 5 nm. 017 1 and Ve /V = 5 × 10−6 . Helium under these conditions can therefore be regarded as an ideal gas.